Gotchas/FAQ#

This is a page for some suggestions, gotchas, and FAQs.

Also see:

What are the best formats to store the CRS information?#

In general, Well-Known Text (WKT) or Spatial Reference ID (SRID), such as EPSG codes, are the preferred formats to describe a CRS.

Note

WKT2 is preferred over WKT1.

PROJ strings can be lossy for storing CRS information. If you can avoid it, it is best to not use them. Additionally, PROJ strings will likely not be supported in future major version of PROJ for storing CRS information.

More info: https://proj.org/faq.html#what-is-the-best-format-for-describing-coordinate-reference-systems

Axis order changes in PROJ 6+#

+init=<auth>:<auth_code> should be replaced with <auth>:<auth_code>#

The +init=<auth>:<auth_code> syntax is deprecated and will be removed in future versions of PROJ. Also, if you use the +init syntax, you may have problems initializing projections when the other syntax works.

>>> from pyproj import CRS
>>> CRS("ESRI:54009")
<Projected CRS: ESRI:54009>
Name: World_Mollweide
Axis Info [cartesian]:
- E[east]: Easting (metre)
- N[north]: Northing (metre)
Area of Use:
- name: World
- bounds: (-180.0, -90.0, 180.0, 90.0)
Coordinate Operation:
- name: World_Mollweide
- method: Mollweide
Datum: World Geodetic System 1984
- Ellipsoid: WGS 84
- Prime Meridian: Greenwich

>>> CRS("+init=ESRI:54009")
...
pyproj.exceptions.CRSError: Invalid projection: +init=ESRI:54009 +type=crs: (Internal Proj Error: proj_create: cannot expand +init=ESRI:54009 +type=crs)

Proj (Not a generic latitude/longitude to projection converter)#

pyproj.Proj is limited to converting between geographic and projection coordinates within one datum. If you have coordinates in latitude and longitude, and you want to convert it to your projection, it is recommended to use the pyproj.transformer.Transformer as it takes into account datum shifts.

You likely want to start from EPSG:4326 (WGS84) for coordinates as latitude and longitude.

>>> from pyproj import CRS
>>> crs_4326 = CRS("WGS84")
>>> crs_4326
<Geographic 2D CRS: EPSG:4326>
Name: WGS 84
Axis Info [ellipsoidal]:
- Lat[north]: Geodetic latitude (degree)
- Lon[east]: Geodetic longitude (degree)
Area of Use:
- name: World
- bounds: (-180.0, -90.0, 180.0, 90.0)
Datum: World Geodetic System 1984
- Ellipsoid: WGS 84
- Prime Meridian: Greenwich

Then, use the pyproj.transformer.Transformer to transform from latitude and longitude to your projection as you might have a projection with a different datum.

>>> crs_proj = CRS("EPSG:28992")
>>> crs_proj
<Projected CRS: EPSG:28992>
Name: Amersfoort / RD New
Axis Info [cartesian]:
- X[east]: Easting (metre)
- Y[north]: Northing (metre)
Area of Use:
- name: Netherlands - onshore.
- bounds: (3.2, 50.75, 7.22, 53.7)
Coordinate Operation:
- name: RD New
- method: Oblique Stereographic
Datum: Amersfoort
- Ellipsoid: Bessel 1841
- Prime Meridian: Greenwich
>>> crs_proj.datum == crs_4326.datum
False
>>> from pyproj import Transformer
>>> transformer = Transformer.from_crs(crs_4326, crs_proj)
>>> transformer.transform(52.067567, 5.068913)
(133175.3690698233, 453300.86739169655)

If you use pyproj.Proj, it will use the geodetic CRS with from the projected CRS with the same datum to do the transformation, which may not be what you want.

>>> from pyproj import Proj
>>> Proj('epsg:28992')(5.068913, 52.067567)
(133148.22970574044, 453192.24450392975)
>>> transg = Transformer.from_crs(crs_proj.geodetic_crs, crs_proj)
>>> transg.transform(52.067567, 5.068913)
(133148.22970574044, 453192.24450392975)

Why does the EPSG code return when using EPSG:xxxx and not with +init=EPSG:xxxx?#

From: https://gis.stackexchange.com/a/326919/144357

The reason that the EPSG code does not appear with the CRS initialized with the init= syntax is that the CRS are different.

>>> from pyproj import CRS
>>> crs_deprecated = CRS(init="epsg:4544")
>>> crs = CRS("epsg:4544")
>>> crs == crs_deprecated
False

Upon further inspection of the Axis Info section, you can see that the difference is in the axis order.

>>> crs_deprecated
<Projected CRS: +init=epsg:4544 +type=crs>
Name: CGCS2000 / 3-degree Gauss-Kruger CM 105E
Axis Info [cartesian]:
- E[east]: Easting (metre)
- N[north]: Northing (metre)
Area of Use:
- name: China - 103.5°E to 106.5°E
- bounds: (103.5, 22.5, 106.5, 42.21)
Coordinate Operation:
- name: Gauss-Kruger CM 105E
- method: Transverse Mercator
Datum: China 2000
- Ellipsoid: CGCS2000
- Prime Meridian: Greenwich

>>> crs
<Projected CRS: EPSG:4544>
Name: CGCS2000 / 3-degree Gauss-Kruger CM 105E
Axis Info [cartesian]:
- X[north]: Northing (metre)
- Y[east]: Easting (metre)
Area of Use:
- name: China - 103.5°E to 106.5°E
- bounds: (103.5, 22.5, 106.5, 42.21)
Coordinate Operation:
- name: Gauss-Kruger CM 105E
- method: Transverse Mercator
Datum: China 2000
- Ellipsoid: CGCS2000
- Prime Meridian: Greenwich

The reason the min_confidence parameter in pyproj.crs.CRS.to_epsg() and pyproj.crs.CRS.to_authority() exists is because you can initialize a CRS in several different methods and some of them do not always coorespond to an EPSG or authortiy code, but it can be close enough.

For example, if you have a WKT/PROJ string and you use it to create the CRS instance, in most cases you want to be sure that the EPSG code given by to_epsg will give you a CRS instance similar to the one created by the WKT/PROJ string. However, if an EPSG code does not exist that matches you WKT/PROJ string with a min_confidence you don’t want to get that EPSG code back as it will make you think that the WKT/PROJ string and the EPSG code are one and the same when they are not.

However, if you are only wanting to get the EPSG code that is closest to the PROJ/WKT string, then you can reduce your min_confidence to a threshold you are comfortable with.

Here is an example of that:

>>> crs_deprecated = CRS("+init=epsg:4326")
>>> crs_deprecated.to_epsg(100)
>>> crs_deprecated.to_epsg(70)
>>> crs_deprecated.to_epsg(20)
4326
>>> crs_latlon = CRS("+proj=latlon")
>>> crs_latlon.to_epsg(100)
>>> crs_latlon.to_epsg(70)
4326
>>> crs_epsg = CRS.from_epsg(4326)
>>> crs_epsg.to_epsg(100)
4326
>>> crs_wkt = CRS(crs_epsg.to_wkt())
>>> crs_wkt.to_epsg(100)
4326
>>> crs_wkt == crs_epsg
True
>>> crs_epsg == crs_latlon
False
>>> crs_epsg == crs_deprecated
False

Internal PROJ Error … SQLite error on SELECT#

The PROJ database is based on the EPSG database. With each release, there is a good chance that there are database updates. If you have multiple versions of PROJ installed on your systems and the search path for the data directory becomes mixed up, you may see an error message like: SQLite error on SELECT. This is likely due to a version of PROJ attempting to use an incompatible database.

Debugging tips:

Upgrading to pyproj 2 from pyproj 1#

We recommended using the pyproj.transformer.Transformer and pyproj.crs.CRS in place of the pyproj.Proj and pyproj.transformer.transform().

Also see:

pyproj 1 style:

>>> from functools import partial
>>> from pyproj import Proj, transform
>>> proj_4326 = Proj(init="epsg:4326")
>>> proj_3857 = Proj(init="epsg:3857")
>>> transformer = partial(transform, proj_4326, proj_3857)
>>> transformer(12, 12)

pyproj 2 style:

>>> from pyproj import Transformer
>>> transformer = Transformer.from_crs("epsg:4326", "epsg:3857")
>>> transformer.transform(12, 12)